The adventures of huckleberry finn pdf

 

    The Adventures of. Huckleberry. Finn. (Tom Sawyer's Comrade) by. Mark Twain name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; but that ain't no matter. That. Most of the ADVENTURES in this book really happened. One or two were my own experiences. The others were experiences of boys in my school. Huck Finn. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is an adaptation of the timeless novel by Mark Twain. Part of the Ladder Series, this of Huckleberry Finn. Text (PDF).

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    The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Pdf

    Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Free illustrated PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. With over illustrations. Mark Twains classic tale concerns young Huckleberry Finn who runs away from home. He. Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in.

    These high-interest 10 chapter novels are designed to excite the reluctant and enthusiastic reader. The integrity of the original classic has been retained yet these adapted versions have been carefully rewritten to specific reading levels thereby allowing consistent progression for developmental reading improvement. Introduce Dickens, Twain, H. Wells, Kipling, Verne and so many more famous authors. Students will embrace the notion of Crusoes lonely reflections, the psychological reactions of a civil war soldier at Chancellorsville and Mowglis connection to creatures deep in the jungle. These classics are brought to life exceptionally well for superior learning and listening enjoyment. Each workbook novel is divided into 10 short chapters Was written using McGraw-Hills Core Vocabulary Has been measured by the Fry Readability Formula Includes comprehension questions that test for main idea, critical thinking, inference, recalling details, sequencing and more Has 60 vocabulary exercises in modified Cloze format Defines and uses words in context with new vocabulary prior to each chapter Includes complete answer keys at the back for all written exercises Contains 72 pages with exciting illustrations in every chapter. Workbook Novels may be used independently from the Audio-books available in the Bring the Classics to Life series.

    Colonel Sherburn The man who shoots Boggs and repels the lynch mob who comes after him. Introduction to the Novel 17 Peter Wilks Deceased townsman. Robinson and Levi Bell Two men who do not believe the duke and the king are the Wilks brothers. In the Explanatory, Twain notifies readers that characters will sound as if they live in the region in which the story takes place.

    Commentary These statements serve three purposes. Second, the warning introduces the use of satire, a harsh and biting brand of humor that readers will continue to see in the novel. Twain recognizes, no doubt, that his novel will incite controversy.

    The mistake was in not forbidding the serpent; then he would have eaten the serpent. Huck gives a brief summary of how he and Tom got six thousand dollars each at the end of Tom Sawyer. During the evening, Huck accidentally kills a spider that was on his shoulder and worries that bad luck will follow.

    When the town clock strikes twelve midnight, Huck hears a noise outside his window and climbs out to find Tom Sawyer waiting for him. Commentary The opening sentence of the novel notifies readers that Huck Finn is the narrator and will tell his story in his own words, in his own language and dialect complete with grammatical errors and misspellings , and from his own point of view.

    By using the first person narrative point of view, Twain carries on the southwestern humor tradition of vernacular language; that is, Huck sounds as a young, uneducated boy from Missouri should sound.

    This first sentence also alludes to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. The allusion reminds the reader of a novel about boys and their adventures, the purpose of which, according to Twain, was to rekindle in adults Critical Commentaries: This first chapter introduces several major literary elements. Because Huck is young and uncivilized, he describes events and people in a direct manner without any extensive commentary. Huck does not laugh at humorous situations and statements simply because his literal approach does not find them to be funny; he fails to see the irony.

    He does not project social, religious, cultural, or conceptual nuances into situations because he has never learned them. Huck does not intend his comment to be disrespectful or sarcastic; it is simply a statement of fact and is indicative of the literal, practical approach to life that he exhibits throughout the novel.

    The first chapter also serves to introduce an important thematic image that pervades the work: Huck feels confined by the social expectations of civilization and wants to return to his simple, carefree life. He dislikes the social and cultural trappings of clean clothes, Bible studies, spelling lessons, and manners that he is forced to follow. Both Huck and Jim search for freedom during their adventure down the Mississippi, and both find that civilization presents a large obstacle to obtaining their dream.

    From the beginning, readers realize that civilization is filled with certain hypocrisies, including religion and the practice of slavery. The barbed comments range from his literary aversion to the novels of authors such as James Fenimore Cooper Last of the Mohicans to overt religious hypocrisies such as the Christian acceptance of slavery in his boyhood town.

    The historical realities of slavery and racial division are, without doubt, the most important and most controversial elements in Huck Finn. In order to depict the region and the attitude in a realistic manner, Twain makes a conscious choice not to edit regional bigotry and the language that accompanies it. The reader should remain aware of two major points while reading this novel: First, the novel is a satire; that is, irony, sarcasm, or caustic wit are used to attack or expose folly, vice, or stupidity.

    Confusing either of these issues can lead the unsophisticated reader to drastic misinterpretations. The feelings and interpretations of situations, issues, and events advanced by Huck are not necessarily those the author is advocating. By the end of this first chapter, the reader has gathered a good deal of data about Huck: Glossary sugar-hogshead a large barrel used to store sugar. Critical Commentaries: Jim tries to find what made the noise and almost discovers the boys, but after a while he falls asleep.

    Afterwards, Jim tells everyone that witches put a spell on him and took him all over the state. After this episode, he is considered an authority on witches. Huck and Tom meet the rest of the town boys, and they all go to a hidden cave two miles down the river. One of the boys says the oath is not fair because Huck Finn does not have a family unless you count a father who can never be found.

    In Missouri, most slaves were domestic servants, not workers on plantations that most people today identify with slavery. Jim gains handsomely from his witch adventure and wisely uses the fictional kidnapping to boost his stature among his peers.

    Nevertheless, the suggestion that Jim displays negative traits has been partially responsible for the opposition to teaching Huck Finn in the classroom. The character of Jim, however, is much more complex than the sleepy man who has seen the devil and been kidnapped by witches. Moreover, this simplistic interpretation of Jim in the beginning of the novel enhances the prejudicial nature of the stereotype when the true depth of his character is revealed later in the novel.

    As readers learn about Huck, they also learn about Jim and the admirable character he is. Also introduced in Chapter 2 is the character of Tom Sawyer. Tom is a contrasting character a foil to Huck, despite their obvious bond and friendship.

    Tom is a romantic, insensitive representative of the society Huck dislikes. His tendency is to take control, romanticize, and exaggerate all situations. Tom bases his expertise in adventures on the many pirate and robber books he has read. Later, in Chapter 3, Tom mentions Don Quixote as a model of the romantic novels.

    Ironically, Cervantes was satirizing romantic adventure stories in this work much the same as Twain does in this work. Obviously, Tom was unaware of the satiric nature of the novel, but Twain was not.

    Unlike the playful humor of Tom Sawyer, the humor of Huck Finn is bitter satire using the hypocrisy, violence, and squalor in the society that Twain observed. This meaning, of course, is wrong, but, as in the greater society, because the group believes it to be true, it becomes their truth, and the rest of their action is based on this error, a serious subject matter undercut by humor.

    Chapter 2 27 Glossary the quality word used by the South to describe aristocracy, five-center piece monetary equivalent of a nickel. Nickels were not minted until after the Civil War. Miss Watson explains to Huck that, through prayer, he can have anything he wants. She makes Huck pray for the next few days, and Huck does not understand why the fishhooks he prays for never arrive.

    During this time, Huck is told that his father, Pap Finn, has been found drowned in the river. Because the body was floating on his back, the superstitious Huck does not believe it is Pap and worries that the violent Pap will show up again. The Tom Sawyer Gang disbands because the only adventure they have is attempting to rob a Sunday-school picnic. Commentary In Chapter 3, the practical Huck again struggles to understand religion.

    When Miss Watson tells Huck he can receive anything he wants through prayer, the literal Huck believes he can receive fishing gear. Through Huck, Twain is exploring his own reservations about religion and its ties to the institution of slavery. It is not incidental that it is Miss Watson who owns Jim and not the Widow Douglas, and Huck continues to question religion and the rules of his society. Chapter 3 29 Chapter 3 continues to establish Tom and Huck as contrasting characters.

    This approach serves Huck well throughout the novel. Glossary hived robbed. To protect the reward money from Pap, Huck goes to see Judge Thatcher and tries to persuade Judge Thatcher to take the money for his own. Because Jim is rumored to have the ability to do magic, Huck asks him if he can predict what Pap will do and where he will stay. Jim says that there are two angels hovering over Pap—one white and one black—and he does not know which way Pap will decide to live his life.

    Jim also says that, just like Pap Finn, Huck has two angels over him, trying to help him decide the right path. When Huck returns to his room that night, he finds Pap waiting for him. He knows that Pap is inspired only by whisky or greed, and if Huck is poor, perhaps Pap will leave him alone.

    Moreover, the subtle threat of abuse underscores the theme of a chaotic and violent environment after the Civil War, an environment that Huck cannot entirely avoid despite his plans and cunning. Chapter 4 31 Chapter 4 continues to document that Huck and Jim are superstitious and are products of their society and their circumstances.

    Jim warns Huck to stay away from the water because it is his fate to be hanged. Glossary irish potato the common white potato; so called because extensively cultivated in Ireland. After the initial shock, Huck decides Pap is too disheveled to be a threat.

    Pap immediately notices how clean Huck is in comparison and then begins a tirade about Huck attending school and trying to be more of a man than his father. Pap is unable to get any money, except when he takes a dollar or two directly from Huck. Although the widow wants to raise Huck, Pap convinces a new judge that he has changed and will start a life free from alcohol and sin. When the widow tells Pap to stop loitering around her house, Pap kidnaps Huck and takes him upriver to the Illinois shore.

    Chapters 5 and 6 33 features. But as in Chapter 4, the threats are laced with the realization that Huck has been beaten by Pap before.

    Huck stays captive for the next couple of months and begins to enjoy his old life, free from manners, education, and religion. Pap exudes bigotry and hate. The irony, however, is more painful than it is humorous because it symbolizes a common racist attitude built on ignorance and insecurity.

    The label is important, however, and foreshadows the numerous deaths that Huck encounters as he escapes down the Mississippi. Glossary black slouch a felt hat with a broad, floppy rim. When Pap leaves for the night to go drinking, Huck escapes through a hole he sawed in the cabin wall.

    By staging his own murder, Huck thinks he can escape without the threat of being followed. Commentary Twain gives the readers another literary glimpse of the river that enchanted him throughout his life and career.

    The quiet Mississippi quickly lulls Huck to sleep. The description is important, because it underscores the serenity of the river and of nature in general as opposed to thc harsh and chaotic world on shore.

    Every action Huck performs, from placing blood on an axe to dragging a bag full of meal, is practical and works to help his plan. The self-reliant characteristic aids Huck well in the future, as he faces decisions that require individual thought and rejection of accepted beliefs. Chapter 7 35 Glossary palavering talking or idly chattering.

    He knows that this will bring a drowned body to the surface and realizes that they must be searching for him. Huck also remembers that another way to find a body is with a loaf of bread filled with quicksilver.

    He scouts the shoreline and finds a large loaf, then wonders if prayer really works. Someone, after all, had prayed that the bread find his body, and that prayer had worked.

    Confident that he is now safe, Huck explores the island until he stumbles upon fresh campfire ashes. After convincing Jim that he is not a ghost, Huck learns that Jim has run away because Miss Watson was going to sell him down the river to New Orleans. During the evening, Jim impresses Huck with his knowledge of superstition. The same is true for the practice of superstition.

    When Huck first stumbles upon Jim, he does not immediately ask why Jim is on the island, nor does he worry that Jim will tell anyone he is alive. This chapter also serves to establish the relationship between Huck and Jim and their roles in contrast to one another.

    In others, the image is more subtle. In this work, Tom and Huck are twins with differing dominate personality characteristics: Tom, the romantic, and Huck, the realist. Likewise, Jim and Huck are twin-like, each searching for his own kind of freedom, but one black, the other white.

    The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn - PDF Download [Download]

    Glossary corn-pone corn meal. They hide the canoe and then haul their traps and supplies up to the cavern. Huck thinks the location is too difficult to reach, but Jim argues that it will help protect them against people and the rain.

    Just as Jim predicted in Chapter 8, a large storm comes. The river rises for 10 or 12 days, and the flooding waters give Jim and Huck the opportunity to explore and capture useful debris. One night, they discover a two-story frame house drifting along. Because of the money and supplies, Huck argues that they are having good luck despite what Jim has told him. After a few days, Huck and Jim decide to sneak into town to learn of any news.

    Huck disguises himself as a girl and goes to the shanty of a woman he does not know. As readers are aware, Pap Finn does not fulfill the role of father or parent except when it is convenient to Pap. The motion is subtle, but the protective action is more apparent later in the last chapter of the novel when readers learn that the dead man is Pap. Despite the fabrications of death and the superstitions surrounding it, Huck does not confront death until he and Jim discover the body inside the house.

    Glossary Barlow knife a jackknife with one blade. Before Huck can leave, the woman figures out that he is not a girl, and Huck makes up yet another wild tale for explanation. Huck is, indeed, an imaginative trickster who lies and fibs his way along the Mississippi. These traits are one reason that authors such as Louisa May Alcott condemned his character as being unsuitable for young readers. Huck is also prone, however, to forget his early stories, and therefore he is forced to invent new tales in order to continue his deception.

    The constantly changing fabrication is certainly comical and displays the creative ability of Huck as well as the ignorance of the people he meets. Chapter 11 41 The fact that the woman fools Huck into revealing his identity as a boy also provides much of the humor in the chapter.

    Despite his maverick nature, Huck is a product of the environment and thus is subject to the same type of manipulation that he performs on others. Even though the woman discovers Huck is not a girl, Huck is still able to save his story by donning another disguise as an orphaned and mistreated apprentice.

    The readers should note that Chapter 11 ends with Huck and Jim functioning as a team. The fifth night after they pass St. Louis, they come upon a steamboat crippled on a rock.

    Although Jim does not want to board the wreck and argues that they should ignore it, Huck convinces him that they need to explore. On board, they overhear voices and see that two men have tied up a third and are discussing his fate. Certain that the wreck will come loose and sink, the two men decide to leave the tied man to a watery death.

    While the men are inside the cabin, Huck and Jim take the skiff and leave the wreck. When they come upon a village, Huck finds a ferryboat watchman and begins another elaborate story.

    The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn - PDF Free Download

    He tells him that his family is up on the steamboat wreck, which readers learn is named the Walter Scott. The man hurries off to sound the alarm with visions of a reward in front of him.

    Later that evening, Huck sees the wreck, which has come loose from the rocks and is quietly sinking as it drifts down the river. The peaceful images of the river are similar to those that readers have seen Critical Commentaries: Chapters 12 and 13 43 in the many film adaptations of Huck Finn: Huck and Jim on a large and comfortable raft, free from outside interference and enjoying the serenity of their new life.

    Although the river is seen as a safe haven for Huck and Jim, the viciousness of the shore arrives in the form of the Walter Scott wreck.

    Adventures of Huckleberry Finn PDF 41 chapters + Glossary pdf - Mark Twain

    In this manner, Twain is able to interrupt the peaceful environment of the river by combining it with the brutality of men. The pattern is one that will recur when the duke and the king board the raft in Chapter Glossary tow-head sandbar with thick reeds.

    Sir Walter Scott Scottish poet and novelist, author of Ivanhoe. After listening to Jim, Huck realizes that, as usual, Jim is right. Among the blankets, clothes, and cigars, Huck finds a few books and reads to Jim about romantic figures like kings, dukes, and earls.

    On the second night, however, a dense fog rolls in, and the strong current separates Huck and Jim. He eventually finds Jim, who is in tears over seeing Huck again. Instead of celebrating their reunion, Huck decides to act as if Jim has been dreaming and Huck has been on the raft the entire night. After a few minutes, Huck feels so ashamed that he apologizes to Jim. Jim and Huck decide that Huck must go ashore to check their progress. When Jim says he will steal his children out of slavery if necessary, Huck decides he must go ashore and turn Jim in to the authorities.

    Instead of rushing ashore at dawn to free his conscience, however, Huck covers for Jim when he runs into townspeople. Shortly after, Huck and Jim see the clear water of the Ohio River and realize they have passed Cairo in the fog. They decide to download another canoe to head upriver, but a steamboat wrecks the raft and the two are once again separated.

    Commentary Before , critics largely believed that Twain stopped writing after Chapter 16 and set the manuscript aside. The assertion appears logical, for Cairo is, indeed, the original destination of Jim and Huck.

    If Huck and Jim make it to Cairo, they can head north up the Ohio River, and the story heads toward its conclusion. Chapters 15 and 16 47 discovery of the first half of the Huck Finn manuscript revealed that Twain had continued through Chapter 18 and then set aside the manuscript for two years. He does not play another prank on Jim, but he continues to feel guilt over helping a slave. The irony of the situation is painful, as Huck condemns himself for protecting Jim instead of recognizing the heroics involved.

    By passing Cairo, Twain is able to navigate the familiar setting of the Mississippi River and the South. The passage down-river also allows Huck to continue his battle between his instincts and what society dictates he should do. Despite his shame from the prank, Huck still struggles with his conscience. His decision to turn Jim in details the twisted logic of slavery that condemns a man for wanting to rescue his children from captivity.

    He is, after all, resisting all the social and cultural reasoning that made slavery possible. When the two men searching for runaway slaves surprise Huck, however, he develops an elaborate story that saves Jim. Huck is constantly pulled between what he is supposed to think and feel that is, what he has been taught either by lessons or social example and what he actually feels and thinks that is, what he has developed through his personal and natural experiences. Muddy the Mississippi River.

    Chapters 17 and 18 49 Chapters 17 and 18 Summary Once on shore, Huck finds himself at an impressive log house owned by the Grangerford family. After they are convinced that Huck is not a member of the Shepherdson family, the Grangerfords take Huck in, give him warm clothes, and feed him. Huck tells everyone that his name is George Jackson and that he fell off a passing steamboat. Huck admires the stately house with its large fireplaces, ornate door locks, and elaborate decor.

    The morbid paintings and poetry of Emmeline, a deceased daughter of the Grangerfords, also fascinate him. Huck soon learns that the Grangerfords share a steamboat landing with another aristocratic family named Shepherdson.

    While the boys run away, Huck notices that Harney has a chance to shoot Buck but rides away instead. Huck wonders about Harney but finally decides he was going after his hat. Among the trees, Huck finds Jim, who says that he has found the raft.

    The next day, Miss Sophia elopes with Harney Shepherdson. The bizarre feud escalates, and several men on both sides of the family are killed, including Buck. He rejoins Jim, and the two decide a raft is the best home.

    The feud between the Grangerfords and Shepherdsons is one of the more memorable chapters in Huck Finn because of its extreme violence. The fact that the two noble families do not know why they continue to fight is ironic, but the irony deepens when the families actually draw blood. The theme of death and brutality, then, is present in all facets of society, including the wealthy, and the peace of the river is never more apparent to Huck.

    You feel mighty free and easy and comfortable on a raft. Chapters 17 and 18 51 Glossary dog-irons iron braces used to hold firewood. The men are obviously being chased, and Huck tells them how to lose the dogs, and they escape. The men, one around 70 and the other around 30 years old, join Huck and Jim on the raft.

    Each man quickly discovers that they both are con artists, and they decide to work together. Shortly after their agreement, the youngest breaks into tears and claims that he is the Duke of Bridgewater and must be treated with respect.

    After a thoughtful moment, the oldest uses the same tactic and claims to be the Dauphin, the rightful heir to the French throne. Huck believes the men are simple con men but decides not to challenge them in order to keep the peace. The duke and the king begin scheming, and with new plans, they land the raft below the one-horse town of Pokeville, which is practically deserted because of a nearby camp meeting.

    When the duke heads off to find a printing shop, the king decides to attend the meeting. At the meeting, the townspeople sing hymns and go up to the pulpit for forgiveness. The king joins the festivities and professes to be an old pirate who has reformed and seen the errors of his past. When they return to the raft, Huck and Jim find that the duke has printed a handbill that describes Jim as a runaway slave from New Orleans.

    The handbill, the duke argues, will allow them to run the raft during the day without intrusion. The next morning, Jim says he can abide one or two kings but no more than that. Commentary Chapter 19 continues to outline the carefree and unaffected environment aboard the raft. Chapters 19 and 20 53 natural surroundings. At this point, the raft, which has been a kind of sanctuary, is invaded by society.

    In a larger sense, the duke and the king represent the confidence men that roamed both the urban and rural landscape of nineteenth-century America, always attempting to prey on the gullible and naive.

    At first, the men appear harmless, and Huck quietly rejects their preposterous claims of royalty. His recognition of their true character is important, for he understands that the two pose a particular threat to Jim. Huck has learned that society is not to be trusted, and the duke and the king quickly show that his concern is legitimate. The inclusion of the camp meeting is a perfect example of the confidence man. Along with its playful burlesque of religion, the camp meeting shows a gullible audience that is swindled because of its faith.

    Glossary gar needlefish. Chapters 21, 22, and 23 55 Chapters 21, 22, and 23 Summary Preparing for their next scam, the duke and king practice the balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet and the sword fight from Richard III.

    A few days later, they go ashore in Arkansas and decide to display their knowledge of Shakespeare. The town is a squalid place with streets of mud and loafers spitting tobacco. As Huck explores, a drunken man named Boggs races into town vowing to kill a man named Colonel Sherburn. The local townspeople laugh at Boggs and remark that his behavior is common practice, and he is harmless. After a brief period, Sherburn comes out of his office and tells Boggs to stop speaking out against him.

    Boggs continues to swear at Sherburn, and, in retaliation, Sherburn levels a pistol and kills him. The town immediately decides that Sherburn must be lynched, and they storm to his house in an angry mob. When they arrive, Sherburn greets them from the roof of his porch and stands up to the mob. After the Shakespearean Revival fails to bring in any significant money, the duke and king advertise a show where no women and children are allowed.

    Unable to resist, several men show up for the first show to find the king on stage, naked and painted with colorful stripes. The men soon realize they have been scammed, but instead of revealing their ignorance to the rest of the town, they convince the other townsmen to attend the show. After two successive scams, the townsmen arrive at the third show with plans to tar and feather the duke and king.

    While the men prepare to barrage the stage with rotten vegetables, the duke sneaks out with Huck, and they join the king and Jim and leave the town. Commentary As with the satire of the camp meeting, the parody of Shakespeare is another staple of frontier humor that Twain uses for comic effect. The men are not only cruel to defenseless animals, they are also vicious with one another as is revealed in the death of poor Boggs.

    The cruelty of the Boggs episode is easily recognized by Huck, as is the general squalor of the town. Huck observes that blacks possibly love their families as much as whites love theirs. As mentioned earlier, the strategy of the confidence man is to play upon the virtues and vices of society. By appealing to the base nature of the men, the duke and the king are able to lure them into their scam and then escape before retaliation.

    The king questions the talkative boy thoroughly about the town and discovers a local man, Peter Wilks, has just died and left all his fortune to his English brothers. Similar to their earlier methods that played off of faith and conviction, the duke and the king plot to earn the confidence of an entire town. Whereas earlier events took place with little judgment, the Wilks scam, coupled with the death of Buck Grangerford, forces Huck to condemn the entire race.

    Later that evening, Huck discovers where the duke and the king hid the gold. Despite the obvious fraud recognized by readers, the family and the town easily accept the king and the duke as English. Chapters 25 and 26 61 origins of the word only adds to the ridiculousness of the scene.

    To act against them clearly jeopardizes his own well being, but, more important, it also jeopardizes the chances of freedom for Jim. Despite the danger, Huck concludes he must return the gold to the daughters.

    Glossary doxolojer the doxology; a hymn of praise to God. Congress-water mineral water from Saratoga said to have medicinal properities.

    Because so many people are in the house, Huck does not have the opportunity to retrieve the money. The funeral proceeds, and Huck realizes he does not know whether the gold is still in the coffin or if someone else has discovered it. After the funeral, the king announces that the estate will be sold in two days. The daughters appear to accept the sale until the king breaks up a slave family and sells them to different traders.

    Mary Jane cannot bear to think of the separated family and the mother and the children never seeing one another again. Because he wants to comfort her, Huck blurts out that the slave family will see each other in the next two weeks. When Mary Jane promises to leave the house if Huck will tell her how he knows this, Huck tells the entire story of the king and the duke and how they have fooled everyone.

    Commentary In Chapter 27, Twain extends his satire to the pomp and circumstance surrounding the funeral service of Peter Wilks.

    The dark humor of the funeral scene is evident with the actions of the undertaker and the comical interlude of the dog and the rat. In witnessing her reaction to the plight of the slave family, Huck learns another valuable lesson about the humanity of slaves and their close familial bonds.

    More important, the scene forces Huck to act based on both his instincts and his conscience. Not only will he tell the daughters where to find the gold, he will also tell them of the entire scam so that the slave family will not be separated.

    To this point, Huck has generally aligned himself with tricksters and con men; he displays, after all, all of the huckster qualities that the duke and the king use. When the duke and king dupe the people of Bricksville, Huck feels no remorse because the town is morally void and generally squalid. When the duke and the king con the Wilks daughters, however, Huck is outraged and realizes he must intervene, regardless of the consequences.

    Glossary smouch steal. The older gentleman introduces himself as Harvey and says they can prove their identity when they retrieve their baggage. At this point, the crowd still believes the duke and the king are the true brothers, but the doctor convinces everyone that they must investigate further.

    After questioning Huck about his English heritage, the town lawyer, Levi Bell, tells Huck that he obviously is not used to lying. The crowd becomes so excited that Huck is able to slip away, and he and Jim escape on the raft. Before they can get very far, however, they see the king and duke have also escaped.

    Jim and Huck realize they are not free from the con men. The duke and the king blame one another for stealing the bag of gold, but after getting drunk, they again become comrades and start working their schemes on new villages. Instead of reacting with anger, the town enjoys the added confusion and as the questions continue, the humor and suspense build. You do it pretty awkward. Instead of attempting to lie his way out of another predicament, Huck chooses to remain quiet and observe the comical investigation.

    Ironically, it is this same type of greed that allows Huck and the duke and the king to escape. Glossary cravats neckerchiefs or scarves. The new schemes of the duke and the king barely bring in enough money for liquor, so the two men begin to plot and whisper about their next scam.

    He cannot help but feel guilty for assisting Jim, despite the fact that his instincts constantly force him into that role.

    Instead of being satisfied with his decision, however, Huck begins to replay their trip down the river. He must decide forever between two things: Once Huck makes his decision to betray society for Jim, he immediately plots to steal Jim back out of slavery.

    Commentary If Chapter 18 is the end of the first segment of the novel, Chapter 31 is the end of the second segment and one of the most important chapters in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Up until this point, the novel has wavered back and forth between the river and the shore, with Critical Commentaries: Chapter 31 67 humorous and cruel events constantly bombarding the reader. Ironically, Huck believes he will be shunned by his community and doom himself to literal hell if he aids Jim.

    Glossary Spanish Moss a plant often found growing in long, graceful strands from the branches of trees in the south eastern U. Before Huck realizes what he is doing, he answers yes and the woman grabs him and hugs him like she has known him all of her life.

    Huck realizes he is in a bind, but just before Huck confesses, the husband arrives and Aunt Sally introduces Huck as none other than Tom Sawyer. After answering several questions about the Sawyer family, Huck heads back to the river in hopes of finding the real Tom who must be on his way. When Huck gets halfway to town, he finds Tom Sawyer.

    At first, Tom thinks Huck is a ghost. Huck and Tom learn that the king and the duke are in town to perform and that Jim has warned the townspeople that the upcoming show is a fraud. Huck and Tom sneak out to try and tell the duke and the king, but they soon come upon the chaotic mob who has already tarred and feathered the con men.

    Commentary Chapter 32 begins what could be called the last segment of the novel. For Huck, the breeze comes across as a whisper of spirits long dead, Critical Commentaries: Chapters 32 and 33 69 and readers are reminded of those that have already died earlier in the novel.

    Although he and Jim have traveled hundreds of miles down the Mississippi River, they find themselves in a situation very similar to the life they left with Miss Watson and the Widow Douglas. The dramatic tonal shift can be attributed to several factors, including the fact that Huckleberry Finn was written in three stages. The reunion of the two boys, however, does not completely overshadow the violent setting that Twain has carefully constructed.

    Instead of standing by and watching the two con men receive their punishment, Huck tries to save the duke and the king from the town and a fate that could include death. Glossary smokehouse a building, especially an outbuilding on a farm, where meats, fish, etc. Methusalem Methuselah, one of the biblical patriarchs who was said to live years.

    Chapters 34 and 35 71 Chapters 34 and 35 Summary Tom discovers that Jim is being held in a small farm cabin, and the two boys discuss plans to free Jim from captivity. Tom again argues that the plan is not complicated enough and then decides that they should dig Jim out because doing so will take a couple of weeks.

    When a slave brings food to Jim, the boys go along and whisper to Jim that they are going to set him free. Tom and Huck begin making plans for an elaborate escape, and each step becomes more complicated and time-consuming. Tom argues that Jim will need a rope ladder and other items such as case-knives and a journal, because the escape must be done just like the prison novels he has read.

    The elaborate escape plan provides Tom the opportunity to call upon several of the prison stories and adventure novels he has read.

    By combining unnecessary tactics such as a tunnel and devices such as a rope ladder, the entire plan becomes a comical romantic farce.

    On the surface, it is obvious that Jim does not need to keep a journal, but the fact that Jim is captive during this time is an overriding shadow on the slapstick humor. The ability to read and write was not common among anyone in the mids, and because Jim is a slave, his being able to write is much more unlikely. More important, however, is the realization that Huck cannot stop the nonsensical plans because he and Jim are trapped within the confines of a racist society.

    The biting satire is obvious when Huck wonders about the logic of digging a tunnel with ordinary case-knives. Glossary fox-fire the luminescence of decaying wood and plant remains, caused by various fungi.

    Langudoc Languedoc, historical region of southern France. Navarre historical region and former kingdom in northeast Spain and southwest France. Chapters 36, 37, and 38 73 Chapters 36, 37, and 38 Summary The next evening, Tom and Huck try to use the case-knives to dig a tunnel under the cabin, but after a few hours, they realize they need better tools.

    Tom decides they will use pick-axes and shovels and pretend that they are case-knives. Tom assures Jim that they will change the plans immediately if something goes wrong. To confuse her, Tom and Huck continually take and replace sheets and spoons until Aunt Sally does not know how many she had to start with. Tom writes down some inscriptions for Jim to carve into the wall but then realizes the walls are wooden.

    To be done properly and according to the books, Tom says they must have stone. The boys try to roll a large grindstone into the cabin but are not strong enough. Jim climbs out of the cabin and helps them roll the stone the rest of the way.

    Commentary In Chapters 36 through 38, the novel slips further into the farce as neither Huck nor Jim understand why they must perform all of these ludicrous acts before Jim can escape. Ironically, Huck and Jim view Tom as a representative of society and education, and because of this, they feel that Tom must know the best way for them to escape. Jim, therefore, remains captive to others despite the fact that he has, indeed, been freed.

    Although the Union made some attempt at Southern reconstruction, the South quickly fell into a squalid and segregated ruin. Conditions for newly freed slaves were no doubt improved, but the longed-for freedom had not come with changed perceptions, acceptance, or equality. Glossary dog-fennel any of several weeds or wildflowers of the composite family, having daisylike flower heads.

    Huck returns to the house to pick up some butter and finds that the Phelps have gathered 15 men to battle the gang of cutthroats. Alarmed, Huck sneaks out the window and warns Tom that the men are here, and they must all escape immediately.

    When the men come to the cabin, Jim and the boys slip out of the hole and head for the river amidst shouts and gunshots. They make it to the raft but then discover that Tom has been shot in the calf. Tom tells them to shove off, but Jim will not leave until a doctor has looked at Tom.

    In this manner, the novel has moved even further from the peaceful tranquility of the raft and the river to the chaos of society and the shore. Symbolizing the clash between Romanticism and Realism, Huck and Tom continue to display juxtaposing approaches to the escape and the situation. The arrival of a town posse frightens Huck, but Tom is delighted. When the town clock strikes twelve midnight, Huck hears a noise outside his window and climbs out to find Tom Sawyer waiting for him.

    Commentary The opening sentence of the novel notifies readers that Huck Finn is the narrator and will tell his story in his own words, in his own language and dialect complete with grammatical errors and misspellings , and from his own point of view. By using the first person narrative point of view, Twain carries on the southwestern humor tradition of vernacular language; that is, Huck sounds as a young, uneducated boy from Missouri should sound.

    This first sentence also alludes to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. This first chapter introduces several major literary elements. Because Huck is young and uncivilized, he describes events and people in a direct manner without any extensive commentary. Huck does not laugh at humorous situations and statements simply because his literal approach does not find them to be funny; he fails to see the irony.

    He does not project social, religious, cultural, or conceptual nuances into situations because he has never learned them. Huck does not intend his comment to be disrespectful or sarcastic; it is simply a statement of fact and is indicative of the literal, practical approach to life that he exhibits throughout the novel. The first chapter also serves to introduce an important thematic image that pervades the work: natural, free individualism contrasted with the expectations of society.

    Huck feels confined by the social expectations of civilization and wants to return to his simple, carefree life. He dislikes the social and cultural trappings of clean clothes, Bible studies, spelling lessons, and manners that he is forced to follow.

    Both Huck and Jim search for freedom during their adventure down the Mississippi, and both find that civilization presents a large obstacle to obtaining their dream. From the beginning, readers realize that civilization is filled with certain hypocrisies, including religion and the practice of slavery.

    The barbed comments range from his literary aversion to the novels of authors such as James Fenimore Cooper Last of the Mohicans to overt religious hypocrisies such as the Christian acceptance of slavery in his boyhood town. The historical realities of slavery and racial division are, without doubt, the most important and most controversial elements in Huck Finn.

    In order to depict the region and the attitude in a realistic manner, Twain makes a conscious choice not to edit regional bigotry and the language that accompanies it.

    The reader should remain aware of two major points while reading this novel: First, the novel is a satire; that is, irony, sarcasm, or caustic wit are used to attack or expose folly, vice, or stupidity. Confusing either of these issues can lead the unsophisticated reader to drastic misinterpretations.

    The feelings and interpretations of situations, issues, and events advanced by Huck are not necessarily those the author is advocating. Glossary sugar-hogshead a large barrel used to store sugar. Jim tries to find what made the noise and almost discovers the boys, but after a while he falls asleep.

    Afterwards, Jim tells everyone that witches put a spell on him and took him all over the state. After this episode, he is considered an authority on witches. Huck and Tom meet the rest of the town boys, and they all go to a hidden cave two miles down the river. One of the boys says the oath is not fair because Huck Finn does not have a family unless you count a father who can never be found.

    In Missouri, most slaves were domestic servants, not workers on plantations that most people today identify with slavery. Jim gains handsomely from his witch adventure and wisely uses the fictional kidnapping to boost his stature among his peers. Nevertheless, the suggestion that Jim displays negative traits has been partially responsible for the opposition to teaching Huck Finn in the classroom. The character of Jim, however, is much more complex than the sleepy man who has seen the devil and been kidnapped by witches.

    Moreover, this simplistic interpretation of Jim in the beginning of the novel enhances the prejudicial nature of the stereotype when the true depth of his character is revealed later in the novel. As readers learn about Huck, they also learn about Jim and the admirable character he is. Also introduced in Chapter 2 is the character of Tom Sawyer. Tom is a contrasting character a foil to Huck, despite their obvious bond and friendship. Tom is a romantic, insensitive representative of the society Huck dislikes.

    His tendency is to take control, romanticize, and exaggerate all situations. Tom bases his expertise in adventures on the many pirate and robber books he has read. Later, in Chapter 3, Tom mentions Don Quixote as a model of the romantic novels. Ironically, Cervantes was satirizing romantic adventure stories in this work much the same as Twain does in this work.

    Obviously, Tom was unaware of the satiric nature of the novel, but Twain was not. Unlike the playful humor of Tom Sawyer, the humor of Huck Finn is bitter satire using the hypocrisy, violence, and squalor in the society that Twain observed. This meaning, of course, is wrong, but, as in the greater society, because the group believes it to be true, it becomes their truth, and the rest of their action is based on this error, a serious subject matter undercut by humor.

    Critical Commentaries: Chapter 2 27 Glossary the quality word used by the South to describe aristocracy, five-center piece monetary equivalent of a nickel. Nickels were not minted until after the Civil War. Miss Watson explains to Huck that, through prayer, he can have anything he wants. She makes Huck pray for the next few days, and Huck does not understand why the fishhooks he prays for never arrive.

    During this time, Huck is told that his father, Pap Finn, has been found drowned in the river. Because the body was floating on his back, the superstitious Huck does not believe it is Pap and worries that the violent Pap will show up again.

    The Tom Sawyer Gang disbands because the only adventure they have is attempting to rob a Sunday-school picnic. Commentary In Chapter 3, the practical Huck again struggles to understand religion.

    When Miss Watson tells Huck he can receive anything he wants through prayer, the literal Huck believes he can receive fishing gear. Through Huck, Twain is exploring his own reservations about religion and its ties to the institution of slavery. It is not incidental that it is Miss Watson who owns Jim and not the Widow Douglas, and Huck continues to question religion and the rules of his society.

    Critical Commentaries: Chapter 3 29 Chapter 3 continues to establish Tom and Huck as contrasting characters. This approach serves Huck well throughout the novel. Glossary hived robbed. To protect the reward money from Pap, Huck goes to see Judge Thatcher and tries to persuade Judge Thatcher to take the money for his own. Because Jim is rumored to have the ability to do magic, Huck asks him if he can predict what Pap will do and where he will stay.

    Jim says that there are two angels hovering over Pap—one white and one black—and he does not know which way Pap will decide to live his life. Jim also says that, just like Pap Finn, Huck has two angels over him, trying to help him decide the right path.

    When Huck returns to his room that night, he finds Pap waiting for him. He knows that Pap is inspired only by whisky or greed, and if Huck is poor, perhaps Pap will leave him alone.

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